Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease: From Pathogenetic Dysfunction to Potential Clinical Application
The most pressing need in Parkinson’s disease (PD) clinical practice is to identify agents that might slow down, stop or reverse the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson’s disease and therefore avoid the onset of the most disabling, dopa-refractory symptoms of the disease. These include dementia, …
elevation of lymph ketone body levels by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet or by administration of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate increases lymphangiogenesis – www.nature.com/articles/s42255-019-0087-y
from the lab – vib.be/news/using-ketone-bodies-fight-against-lymphedema
Many studies show that low-carb and ketogenic diets can lead to dramatic weight loss and improve most major risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Also, repeatedly shown (but not always) to help with or reverse PD and other neurologicsal conditions
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The need for therapies that change the course of Parkinson’s disease is considerable. Several contenders are in development.
We reviewed computerized tomograms (CT) for basal ganglia and dentate nucleus calcifications in 79 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), 54 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 109 controls aged 50 or more. When it was determined, no patient had disturbances in calcium metabolism. We found: …
File:Gluten ataxia eng.ogv
Gluten ataxia is an autoimmune disease triggered by the ingestion of gluten. With gluten ataxia, damage takes place in the cerebellum, the balance center of the brain that controls coordination and complex movements like walking, speaking and swallowing, with loss of Purkinje cells. People with gluten ataxia usually present gait abnormality or incoordination and tremor of the upper limbs. Gaze-evoked nystagmus and other ocular signs of cerebellar dysfunction are common. Myoclonus, palatal tremor, and opsoclonus-myoclonus may also appear.
Early diagnosis and treatment with a gluten-free diet can improve ataxia and prevent its progression. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the elapsed time from the onset of the ataxia until diagnosis, because the death of neurons in the cerebellum as a result of gluten exposure is irreversible.
Gluten ataxia accounts for 40% of ataxias of unknown origin and 15% of all ataxias. Less than 10% of people with gluten ataxia present any gastrointestinal symptom, yet about 40% have intestinal damage.
Other neurological disorders
In addition to gluten ataxia, gluten sensitivity can cause a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, which develop with or without the presence of digestive symptoms or intestinal damage. These include peripheral neuropathy, epilepsy, headache, encephalopathy, vascular dementia, and various movement disorders (restless legs syndrome, chorea, parkinsonism, Tourette syndrome, palatal tremor, myoclonus, dystonia, opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome, paroxysms, dyskinesia, myorhythmia, myokymia).
The diagnosis of underlying gluten sensitivity is complicated and delayed when there are no digestive symptoms. People who do experience gastrointestinal problems are more likely to receive a correct diagnosis and treatment. A strict gluten-free diet is the first-line treatment, which should be started as soon as possible. It is effective in most of these disorders. When dementia has progressed to an advanced degree, the diet has no beneficial effect. Cortical myoclonus appears to be treatment-resistant on both gluten-free diet and immunosuppression.
(2021). The therapeutic potential of ketone bodies in Parkinson’s disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics: Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 255-257.
…Ketone supplementation combined with a regular carbohydrate-rich diet creates an unphysiological metabolic state that could undermine efficacy. A more promising approach may be to maintain a steady state of ketosis with a KD, while periodically boosting ketone concentration with supplementation. Progress will need to be made in developing a regimen that can be sustained for years, identifying individuals most likely to respond to ketone therapy, determining the threshold concentration for therapeutic ketosis, and managing other pharmacological treatments and social constraints. However, the bioenergetic potential of ketones and their wide-ranging pleiotropic effects indicate that ketone therapy holds considerable promise in PD and warrants further investigation.