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This 2019 report in the National Library of Medicine (National Center for Biotechnology Information) looks at lifestyles and dietary habits associated with PD. A fasting mimicking diet (FMD), fasting 3 days followed by 4 days of refeeding for three 1-week cycles, which accelerated the retention of motor function and attenuated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), known to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons, were increased in PD mice after FMD, suggesting the involvement of BDNF in FMD-mediated neuroprotection. The findings showed that FMD also inhibited neuroinflammation and modulated the shifts in gut microbiota composition.
A 2019 study published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences looked at the interaction of mitochondria, a-synuclein and the endo-lysosomal system. PD is characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss and the alpha-synuclein-containing Lewy body inclusions in the substantia nigra. Genetic investigations have revealed evidence of the involvement of mitochondrial function, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation, and the endo-lysosomal system, in disease pathogenesis. Although familial parkinsonism makes up less than 10% of adult parkinsonism, the findings generated from genetic studies have enhanced the understanding of the neuron degeneration processes. These include mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of network integrity, and α-syn accumulation; the functions of the proteasome and endo-lysosomal pathways in cellular degradation. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, endo-lysosomal disruptions, and α-syn aggregation mutually interact within neurons, while α-syn prion-like propagation may also be associated with PD in an inter-neuronal manner. Both mitochondria and endo-lysosomal dysfunction contribute to the development of α-syn pathology, however, the specific organelle playing the most important role might be decided by genetic and environmental factors. Most likely, a vicious cycle may develop once one system becomes dysfunctional. Further elucidation of the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PD may lead to the development of future therapeutic targets to treat PD.
Many bacteria, such as Escherichia coli found in the large intestine, can synthesize vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7 or MK-7, up to MK-11), but not vitamin K1 (phylloquinone).
Vitamin K – Wikipedia
en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › Vitamin_K
Gut bacteria that produce k2:
k2 lower INR: