Background: In moderately advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), low serum vitamin B12 levels are common and are associated with neuropathy and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about B12 in early PD.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of low vitamin B12 status in early PD and whether it is associated with clinical progression.
Methods: We measured vitamin B12 and other B12 status determinants (methylmalonic acid, , and holotranscobalamin) in 680 baseline and 456 follow-up serum samples collected from DATATOP participants with early, untreated PD. Borderline low B12 status was defined as serum B12 <184 pmol/L (250 pg/mL), and elevated homocysteine was defined as >15 µmol/L. Outcomes included the UPDRS, ambulatory capacity score (sum of UPDRS items 13-15, 29&30), and MMSE, calculated as annualized rates of change.
n a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 112 PD patients (mean age, 72 years) on standard PD treatment were supplemented with 1,200 IU/day of vitamin D or a placebo for 12 months. Vitamin D supplementation nearly doubled serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (from mean of 22.5 ng/mL to 41.7 ng/mL) in supplemented subjects and limited the progression of PD, as indicated by a greater proportion of patients who showed no worsening (as assessed by the Hoehn and Yahr stage and the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part II) in the supplemented group compared to the placebo group (243). It is not known whether vitamin D insufficiency has a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, but the repletion of vitamin D may provide health benefits that go beyond the prevention and/or the treatment of PD. For example, vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture in individuals with neurologic disorders, including PD and multiple sclerosis (244-246). Interestingly, sunlight exposure was found to be associated with improved vitamin D status, higher bone mineral density of the second metacarpal bone, and lower incidence of hip fracture in a prospective study conducted in 324 elderly people with PD (247).
Current approaches to cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease are strongly focused on the dopamine system, with the view that restoring dopaminergic inputs in a localized and physiologic manner will provide superior benefits in terms of effec
Similar drugs to NLY01 already approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of type 2 diabetes include exenatide, lixisenatide, liraglutide and dulaglutide, each of which can cost approximately $2,000 for a 90-day supply. NLY01 is a long-acting drug with improved the brain penetration compared to these approved drugs for diabetes.
plant based low carb diet -EcO Atkins…Some 31% of the calories in the diet came from plant proteins, 43% from vegetable oils, and 26% from carbs.
improve motor function full text
from the review:
The classic ketogenic therapy is based on a diet providing 90% of calories from long-chain fatty acids, a restricted protein portion (1 g/kg/day), and minimal carbohydrates. Traditionally, the diet is comprised of four parts fat, mainly LCTs, for one part carbohydrates and proteins. The ratio can be modified to 3:1, 2:1, or 1:1, respectively, similar to the modified Atkins diet (Kossoff et al., 2003). The MCTs diet is also proposed with 60% of calories from octanoate and decanoate that are more ketogenic than LCTs (Huttenlocher, 1976). The last alternative to a ketogenic therapy is the low glycemic index diet characterized by higher amounts of carbohydrates with low glycemic index (Coppola et al., 2011).
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