Bacteraemia was Detected after Chewing Bubble Gum in 22% of Patients

Chewing did not produce bacteraemia in our study. Similar results were obtained by Robinson et al.

In patients chewing wax, and by Cobe21 in patients chewing gum. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected after chewing bubble gum in 22% of patients by Diener et al.,38 after chewing paraffin in 55% of patients by Murray and Moosnick,39 after chewing hard candy in 17.4% of patients by Cobe,21 and after chewing bubble gum in 20% of patients by Forner et al.33

Could Parkinson’s be Caused by Infection?

In examining the hypothesis that PD could stem from an influenza virus infection that develops into encephalitis lethargica the role of bacterial and viral infections as a possible cause of Parkinsonism is questioned. The paper compares the clinical, histological, and structural features of Parkinsonism in infectious diseases and looks at the influenza virus and why and how it became associated with PD. Herpes Simplex Virus 1; Epstein-Barr Virus; Varicella-Zoster Virus; Hepatitis C; the Japanese Encephalitis Virus and the West Nile Virus are discussed in connection with PD. The review also examines the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Parkinsonism. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of infectious pathogens in inducing neuroinflammation leading to PD development has been observed. However, it cannot be established that all cases of PD are associated with increased inflammation and underlying chronic infection. Further research is necessary to examine the involvement and extent to which pathogens and inflammatory cytokines play in the pathomechanism of PD.

Source: Infectious Etiologies of Parkinsonism: Pathomechanisms and Clinical Implications

What is the Link Between Helicobacter Pylori and PD?

This 2018 report from the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease examines the association between the gut bacteria Helicobacter pylori and PD. H. pylori is a common gut bacterium that causes ulcers, gastritis, and can lead to stomach cancer. The majority of PD cases are caused by unknown environmental factors, and bacterial infections could be one of them. This has led doctors to look at the link between H. pylori and PD. After reviewing past studies on the subject four important points were noted: H. pylori-infected PD patients experience worse motor function issues than those not infected; people with PD are more prone to be infected by H. pylori and eradication of H. pylori could improve motor function and levodopa absorption in people with PD.

Source: Eradicating Helicobacter pylori Infections May Be a Key Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease

prion-like α-synuclein הדבקה מבחוץ

from food:

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701169/

  • so human source probably also possible
  • leaky gut probably a factor

According to research from John Hopkins, Duke University, and Utah State University, caregivers of someone with neurodegenerative disease are six times more likely to develop the condition themselves. Neurodegenerative disease is a spectrum disease.

Resection of the vagus nerve before rotenone treatment stopped the spread of PD-like pathology.13 Taken together, these data support the intriguing Braak and prion hypotheses of PD development.