Xylitol is a chemical compound and can be classified as a polyalcohol and sugar alcohol, specifically alditol. Xylitol is used as a food additive, often replacing sugar in foods. It occurs in several fruits and humans and animals naturally make trace amounts during the metabolism of carbohydrates. Xylitol is also produced commercially by fermentation of discarded biomass. Xylitol is water-soluble and like most sugar alcohols, xylitol is achiral. Xylitol has negligible effects on blood sugar because it is metabolized independently of insulin. There are no serious health risks for normal consumption. Increased xylitol consumption can increase oxalate, calcium, and phosphate excretion in urine. About 50% of eaten xylitol is not absorbed by the intestines in humans. Instead, 50–75% of this amount is fermented by gut bacteria to short-chain organic acids and gases. The liver metabolizes 50% of absorbed xylitol. The main metabolic route in humans is: in cytoplasm, nonspecific NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (polyol dehydrogenase) transforms xylitol to D-xylulose. Specific xylulokinase phosphorylates it to D-xylulose-5-phosphate. This then goes to pentose phosphate pathway for further processing.
Source: Xylitol – Wikipedia