Learn about the side effects, dosages, and interactions of prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines, herbs, and supplements.
Explore ways to check in on your health from home with reviews and comparisons of top testing kits.
Source: At-Home Testing Reviews
Glutamine effectively increases circulating GLP-1, GIP and insulin levels in vivo and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to stimulating insulin secretion in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: GLP-1, GIP, glucagon, insulin secretion, glutamine
Source: Oral Glutamine Increases Circulating GLP-1, Glucagon and Insulin Levels in Lean, Obese and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
Source: Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine Levels Predict Different Outcomes in Early Parkinson’s Disease
Background: In moderately advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), low serum vitamin B12 levels are common and are associated with neuropathy and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about B12 in early PD.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of low vitamin B12 status in early PD and whether it is associated with clinical progression.
Methods: We measured vitamin B12 and other B12 status determinants (methylmalonic acid, , and holotranscobalamin) in 680 baseline and 456 follow-up serum samples collected from DATATOP participants with early, untreated PD. Borderline low B12 status was defined as serum B12 <184 pmol/L (250 pg/mL), and elevated homocysteine was defined as >15 µmol/L. Outcomes included the UPDRS, ambulatory capacity score (sum of UPDRS items 13-15, 29&30), and MMSE, calculated as annualized rates of change.
Results: At baseline, 13% had borderline low B12 levels, 7% had elevated homocysteine, whereas 2% had both. Elevated homocysteine at baseline was associated with worse scores on the baseline MMSE. Analysis of study outcomes showed that compared with the other tertiles, participants in the low B12 tertile (<234 pmol/L; 317 pg/mL) developed greater morbidity as assessed by greater annualized worsening of the ambulatory capacity score. Elevated homocysteine was associated with greater annualized decline in MMSE (−1.96 vs. 0.06; P = 0001). Blood count indices were not associated with B12 or homocysteine status. Conclusions: In this study of early PD, low B12 status was common. Low B12 at baseline predicted greater worsening of mobility whereas elevated homocysteine predicted greater cognitive decline. Given that low B12 and elevated homocysteine can improve with vitamin supplementation, future studies should test whether prevention or early correction of these nutritionally modifiable conditions slows development of disability. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Supporting Informatio
According to Dr. Garth Nicholson, with prolonged mycoplasma viral infections, the pathogen penetrates cells and causes mitochondrial damage. The phenomenon is typical in a number of chronic diseases (for the infection as a cause of chronic diseases go here), as a result of cancer treatments, and as a result of aging. Declined mitochondrial function causes fatigue and other damage.
For the role of mitochondria in idiopathic Parkinson’s go here, and here.
The above treatment was originally developed for anti-aging.
Treatment is by capsules containing lipids needed to repair the mitochondria. Capsules contain a higher concentration of lipids than found in food. The capsules preserve their integrity as they travel through the digestive system. In essence, it is a nutritional supplement.
As discussed in the video, it can be assumed that a diet based on unprocessed and uncooked organic food will have good results.
Here is a study showing a significant improvement in mitochondrial function after taking an NT Factor supplement pack for 12 weeks.
NT Factor Contents:
NTFactor® is a nutrient complex that is extracted and prepared using a proprietary process that protects lipids from oxidation. In addition, nutrients, vitamins and probiotic microorganisms are added to the preparation. It contains the following ingredients: Glycophospholipids: polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine, other polyunsaturated phosphatidyl lipids, glycolipids and other lipids such as cardiolipin and sterol lipids. Probiotics: Bifido bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bacillus in a freeze-dried, microencapsulated form with appropriate growth nutrients. Food Supplements, Vitamins and Growth Media: bacterial growth factors to support probiotic growth, including defatted rice bran, arginine, beet root fiber extract, black strap molasses, glycine, magnesium sulfate, para-amino-benzoate, leek extract, pantethine (bifidus growth factor), taurine, garlic extract, calcium borogluconate, artichoke extract, potassium citrate, calcium sulfate, spirulina, bromelain, natural vitamin E, calcium ascorbate, alpha-lipoic acid, oligosaccharides, vitamin B-6, niacinamide, riboflavin, inositol, niacin, calcium pantothenate, thiamin, vitamin B-12, folic acid, chromium picolinate.
The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements offers a fact sheet giving an overview of each vitamin, mineral, and other dietary supplement ingredients. There are two versions – the version for health professionals and the consumer version. Both versions contain the same listings but the professional fact sheet goes into more detail.
Labdoor buys supplements from retail stores and tests them in chemistry labs then publishes the results with expert reviews. They offer free lab reports with no manufacturer bias. Each supplement is independently tested so that you can be sure of the safety of the products you buy. Find out what’s really in your supplement without false claims. You often see products that are “endorsed by celebs”, claim to be “maximum strength”, or are “recommended by doctors” but have not been tested and are low quality.
On ConsumerLab.com you can read product reviews of supplements and medicines; learn about health warnings; brands and get answers to your questions about drugs and supplements. The products listed on ConsumerLab.com include vitamins, minerals, herbal supplements, nutrition powders, health bars, and nutrition drinks, tropical oils and creams, health protection devices, health foods, drugs, and health products for pets. Products are categorized by name and also by health condition so you can search for your particular illness or disease to find the relevant supplements and their reviews.
Question: Does CoQ10 interact with blood thinners? Answer: There are studies with conflicting results on whether CoQ10 may interfere with warfarin treatment or decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). There are studies that suggest that CoQ10 may increase the risk of bleeding when on warfarin and other studies that suggest CoQ10 may decrease the risk of bleeding when on warfarin. Other studies indicate that there is no effect so long as your INR (bleeding time) is stable. It’s not clear whether CoQ10 affects Plavix treatment. Consult with your doctor before taking any supplement or medication.
Source: ConsumerLab Q&A
A study published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care in 2016 conducted population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling for retrospective clinical data to investigate the effect of vitamin K2on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin in the perioperative period of catheter ablation. 579 INR values of prothrombin time from 100 patients were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling program NONMEM. A 1-compartment model was adapted to the pharmacokinetics of warfarin and vitamin K2, and the indirect response model was used to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration and the pharmacodynamic response of warfarin and vitamin K2.
The population parameters obtained successfully explained the observed INR values and indicated an increase in sensitivity to warfarin in patients with reduced renal function. Vitamin K2 administration of more than 20 mg caused a slight dose-dependent decrease in INR on the day of catheter ablation and a delayed INR elevation after warfarin re-initiation. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was successfully built to explain the retrospective INR data during catheter ablation.
Source: Effect of vitamin K2 on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin during the perioperative period of catheter ablation: Population analysis of retrospective clinical data
A paper by Robert Alan Bonakdar, MD, and Erminia Guarneri MD, published by aafp.org in 2005 looks at coenzyme Q10 and its use in the treatment of a variety of disorders including PD, plus cardiac, immunologic, and oncologic conditions. Coenzyme Q10 appears to be a safe supplement with minimal side effects and low drug interaction potential. As yet, coenzyme Q10 has not been approved for the treatment of specific diseases in the USA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of 80 patients found that 1,200 mg per day of coenzyme Q10 was associated with up to 44 percent less functional decline in patients with Parkinson’s disease, including activities of daily living. A study of 28 patients with Parkinson’s disease also demonstrated mild symptom improvement with daily oral dosing of 360 mg of coenzyme Q10. These results are awaiting confirmation.
An article published in U.S.Pharmacist in 2012 looks at the emerging role of K2. Recent research has found that vitamin K could be used to treat osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and perhaps Alzheimer’s, skin aging, and various cancers. Vitamin K plays a role in regulating the healthy function of calcium and preventing pathologic calcification of the vessels and soft tissues. Vitamin K vitamers include K1 phytonadione; K2 menaquinone, and K3 menadione. The ability to convert vitamin K1 to K2 varies widely between species and breeds of animals. Vitamins K1 and K2 chemically share a common ring-structured nucleus but possess different types of side chains. Humans require dietary preformed vitamin K2 for optimal health, due to its superiority over K1 and for normal clotting of blood. The bones, liver, cartilage, and arterial walls can pull vitamin K from the blood. The current FDA recommendation is for the liver requirement only. Vitamin K antagonists include Warfarin, the blood-thinning drug that inhibits vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Vitamin K can decrease the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and lower PT or INR value.
Source: The Emerging Role of Vitamin K2
A study published in the MDPI journal Biomedicines in 2018 looked at the pros and cons of Resveratrol. Resveratrol has a wide range of beneficial properties; it is cardioprotective, an antioxidant, neuroprotective, has anti-cancer activities, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its hydrophobic nature gives it limited bioavailability resulting from its poor water solubility. Resveratrol has not been found to have any side effects but this may depend on the dosage. Resveratrol can effectively help with a number of conditions. Its neuroprotective properties can help with various neurogenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, and PD. Although Resveratrol’s benefits are well documented some studies have shown that it may behave as a pro-oxidizing agent, thus it may also have implications in the pathology of several diseases.
Source: Resveratrol: A Double-Edged Sword in Health Benefits
A study published in the MDPI journal Nutrients looks at the use of fish oil with warfarin and whether it significantly affects the INR or incidence of adverse events in patients. Warfarin is an anticoagulant often used to manage atrial fibrillation and deep vein thrombosis. However, patients have to be careful about drug interaction with warfarin. Fish and krill oil products are among the many complimentary medicines which have been flagged as having a potential interaction with warfarin. This study assesses the influence of fish and krill oil supplements on warfarin and looks at patients that took warfarin simultaneously with fish or krill oil. The result was that overall, the oils did not significantly alter the efficacy of warfarin.
Source: The Use of Fish Oil with Warfarin Does Not Significantly Affect either the International Normalised Ratio or Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Retrospective Study
A 2020 trial looks at the anti-aging effects of niacin. The key is to promote not only a longer life but a healthier life. As we age our NAD molecules decrease so that there is not enough fuel for Sirtuins enzymes that can help reverse DNA damage and signs of aging. One of the main reasons our NAD+ decreases is the enzyme CD38. CD38 is also involved in the degradation of the precursor to NAD, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). As we age our CD38 levels increase and NAD+ go down. The less we activate our Sirtuins the more CD38 we have, so NAMPT suppresses CD38 expression via SIRT1. We can break this vicious circle by taking niacin which can create NAD+ so Sirtuins will have the fuel they need. The study notes that increased NAD+ levels remarkably improved disease hallmarks and mitochondrial mass. This is interesting for treating high cholesterol cases and chronic disease.
Here are the links to the research papers referenced in the video: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NB… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti… www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti…
Some notes about niacin safety depending on HDL/LDL cholesterol levels:
Big study showing the risk of high dose niacin + some cholesterol-lowering medication
High dose for treating cholesterol is normally 1-2 grams but may be as high as 12 grams
A study published by the NIH Clinical Trials looked at vitamin C infusion as a possible treatment for severe COVID-infected pneumonia. The study was sponsored by ZhiYong Peng of the Zhongnan Hospital. The study hypothesized that vitamin C infusion could improve the prognosis of SARI (Severe acute respiratory infection)patients. 12g vitamin C was infused in the experimental group twice a day for 7 days by the infusion pump with a speed of 12ml/h. Early clinical studies have shown that vitamin C can effectively prevent the cytokine surge caused by sepsis, and neutrophils accumulation in the lungs destroying alveolar capillaries. In addition, vitamin C can help to eliminate alveolar fluid by preventing the activation and accumulation of neutrophils, and reducing alveolar epithelial water channel damage. At the same time, vitamin C can prevent the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and shorten the duration of the common cold. In a controlled but non-randomized trial, 85% of the 252 students treated experienced a reduction in symptoms in the high-dose vitamin C group (1g / h at the beginning of symptoms for 6h, followed by 3 * 1g / day). Among patients with sepsis and ARDS, patients in the high-dose vitamin group did not show a better prognosis and other clinical outcomes.
Source: Vitamin C Infusion for the Treatment of Severe 2019-nCoV Infected Pneumonia